The Indian Expulsion Act of 1830 was a devastating blow to the Native American tribes living in the southeastern United States. The Act authorized the government to extinguish any indigenous right to land in the Southeast and forcibly relocate over 100,000 American Indians to Indian Territory, now known as Oklahoma. This relocation had a profound impact on the cultural identity of these tribes, particularly those of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole nations. The goal of the relocation was to move Native Americans to cities, where they would be assimilated into the dominant white American culture.
The government would then make the tribal lands taxable and available for purchase and development. This vision was that eventually there would be no more Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), no tribal governments, no reservations, and no Native Americans. The relocation process was brutal and traumatic for many Native Americans. They were forced to leave their homes and ancestral lands behind and travel hundreds of miles in harsh conditions.
Many died along the way due to disease, starvation, and exhaustion. Those who survived were often separated from their families and communities, which had a devastating effect on their cultural identity. The relocation also had a profound effect on the land itself. The indigenous nations had been migratory hunters who had no attachment to any particular land.
With their removal, the land was opened up for purchase and development by white settlers. This led to the destruction of many sacred sites and traditional hunting grounds, further eroding Native American cultural identity. In addition to the physical relocation of Native Americans, there were also attempts to erase their cultural identity through assimilation policies. These policies sought to strip away Native American languages, customs, and beliefs in favor of those of white Americans.
This included attempts to convert them to Christianity and force them to adopt European-style clothing and hairstyles. The forced relocation of Native Americans from their ancestral lands in the Southeast had a devastating impact on their cultural identity. It led to the destruction of sacred sites and traditional hunting grounds, as well as attempts to erase their language, customs, and beliefs through assimilation policies. Despite these efforts, many Native American tribes have managed to maintain their cultural identity in Indian Land, South Carolina and other parts of the United States.