The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was a heartbreaking episode in American history, resulting in the displacement of more than 46,000 Native Americans from their homes and ancestral lands. This Act of Congress authorized the federal government to negotiate with indigenous tribes to exchange their land east of the Mississippi River for land to the west. The goal was to expel all Native Americans living in existing states and territories and send them to unsettled lands in the west. This process had already started at the end of the 18th century due to pressure from white settlements, leading small groups of Choctaw, Cherokees and Chickasaw to move west to the Mississippi and, by 1807, they were already settling in Arkansas, Indian Territory and East Texas. The War of 1812, which was a decisive victory over the English, gave Americans a sense of national identity, but it also created the need for indigenous lands.
The first treaties signed by U. S. agents and representatives of indigenous tribes guaranteed peace and the integrity of Indian territories, mainly to ensure that the lucrative fur trade continued uninterrupted. Thomas Jefferson acquired the territory of Louisiana in part to find a place for indigenous communities who would not assimilate into white society and who wanted to follow their traditional hunting ways of life. By the 1840s, nearly all Indian tribes had been forced westward, and that's exactly what the Indian Expulsion Act intended to achieve.
Government agents promised western lands that would be theirs forever, but Americans explored those lands as well. One of the reasons for these treaties was that the Indians were migratory hunters who were only engaged in hunting and had no attachment to any particular land. Unfortunately, more than 4,000 people died from disease, starvation, and exposure to extreme weather during this process. The transfer of American Indian tribes from lands east of the Mississippi River to what is now the state of Oklahoma opened 25 million acres of Eastern land to white settlement and, since most of the land was in the American South, to the expansion of slavery. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was an appalling event in American history that resulted in displacement and death for thousands of Native Americans. It is essential to remember this tragic episode in our nation's history so that we can learn from it and make sure that similar events never happen again.