The Role of Native Americans in Agriculture and Farming Practices in Indian Land, South Carolina

The techniques used by Native Americans in South Carolina for agriculture and farming practices were simple yet effective. Even though agricultural land was privately owned, the Indians of the region respected property rights and demonstrated scrupulous respect for it. Scholars suggest that small-scale agriculture began to develop among American Indians in the Southeast around 1000 BC. During the early forested period, native peoples began to concentrate their settlements near streams and rivers, where the rich land allowed for successful agriculture.

This Woodland tradition took root among the Indians of the Carolina region. Many forest dwellers planted crops such as sunflowers, corn, pumpkins, pumpkins and beans and built permanent wooden houses. However, the Indians of the Forest Period still relied mainly on hunting, fishing, and gathering. Among the enormous variety of animal resources available, deer were a staple food and provided food, clothing, blankets, and tools made of antler and bone.

Fishing methods included the use of hooks, spears (sometimes poisoned), nets, traps, prey, and canoes. In most tribes, work was shared by men and women. Indigenous dwellings used to consist of huts made of bark or straw, sometimes lifted from the ground. Some Indians, including the Cherokees, also built windowless earthen winter houses. The houses were furnished with straw or cane mats, ceramics, basketry and wooden utensils.

As larger family groups and bands formed around productive agricultural or hunting land, villages developed. Some villages were surrounded by protective palisades and most included a municipal house for public meetings. People migrate to North America from Asia at irregular intervals across the Bering land bridge. Possibly as soon as possible, American Indians will begin using a site in present-day Wilson County to live permanently or seasonally. Southeastern Indians start growing pumpkins.

Cities get bigger and last longer. People build flat-topped pyramidal mounds to serve as foundations for temples, mortuaries, chiefs' houses, and other important buildings. Cities are often located next to streams and surrounded by defensive structures. Many groups of American Indians live in the area that is now called North Carolina. These include Chowanoke, Croatoan, Hatteras, Moratoc, Secotan, Weapemeoc, Machapunga, Pamlico, Coree, Neuse River, Tuscarora, Meherrin, Cherokee, Cape Fear, Catawba, Shakori, Sissipahaw, Sugeree, Waccamaw, Waxhaw, Woccon, Cheraw , Catawba , Shakori , Sissipahaw , Sugeree , Waccamaw , Waccamaw , Eno Keyauw Occaneechi , Soaps and Tutelo.

This translates into Europeans' contact with native peoples in the Caribbean and South America , creating a continuous and devastating impact on their cultures. Sir Francis Drake arrives on Roanoke Island and takes most of the colonists back to England , leaving behind a group of explorers. Possibly Drake also left Africans and South American Indians that he captured from the Spanish. An aid ship arrives at Roanoke Island and , finding none of the colonists , leaves fifteen men to maintain the area in the name of England. Governor White leaves Roanoke Island to go to England to acquire supplies for the colonists .With England and Spain at war , White cannot immediately return to the colony.

An escaped slave works as an architect in the construction of a large indigenous fort in Tuscarora near the Neuse River. Baron Christoph von Graffenried , leader of the Swiss and German Protestants , establishes a colony in Bath County. The city , called New Bern , was founded at the junction of the Trent and Neuse rivers , displacing an Indian city called Chattoka .Colonial governor approves proposal to establish an Indian academy in present-day Sampson County. A second smallpox epidemic ravages the Catawba tribe and reduces the population by half.

A small group of unauthorized men sign the Cherokee Expulsion Treaty. The Cherokees are protesting against the treaty and Chief John Ross collects more than 15000 signatures , representing almost the entire Cherokee population , in a petition asking the United States Senate to suspend ratification .An estimated 4000 Cherokees die during the 1200 mile walk. A few hundred Cherokees refuse to be arrested and transported. They hide in the mountains and evade federal soldiers.

Finally , an agreement is reached between the army and the rest of the Cherokees. Tsali , a prominent and courageous Cherokee , agrees to surrender to General Winfield Scott to be killed if the army allows the rest of his people to remain legally in North Carolina. The federal government finally establishes a reserve for the Eastern Cherokee Band. The Coharie receive state recognition , but this recognition is canceled two years later.

The names of the state of North Carolina recognize a group of Indians descended from the Saponi , Tutelo and Occaneechi tribes as Indians from Person County. State recognition will be annulled in 1970s. The Carolina Indian Voice , an Indian-owned newspaper , begins operations. The Waccamaw-Siouan tribe begins to rule by a tribal council and a tribal chief. Because Native American land use may have created an underlying architecture that guided Euro-American settlements , prehistoric niche-building activities are likely to continue to influence land-use patterns at family level as well as regional levels , resource management efforts at landscape level such as Sumter National Forest. Yeardly agrees to buy land from Roanoke Indians but dies before their settlement is established.

During colonial period in South Carolina ( 1663 - 177 ) King of Great Britain granted headquarter rights. Town Creek Indian Mound located present-day Montgomery County is example North Carolina mound that was heart urban site built Mississippians. Despite obvious dangers on South Carolina's Piedmontese border settlers followed scattered pattern. Although they usually didn't travel far beyond these familiar environments American Indians during this period began establish trade migration routes that brought native peoples Carolinas into contact other bands tribes. Rutherford joined Colonel Andrew Williamson with South Carolina troops Colonel William Christian with Virginians And Mary Epps wrote land school Indians Person County North ...

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