The Role of Native American Tribes in the Development of Indian Land, South Carolina

The 1670s and 1680s marked the beginning of a decline in the Native American population in the lowlands of South Carolina. Spanish soldiers and their Indian allies burned a trail of destruction from Port Royal to Edisto and Wadmalaw Islands, resulting in the displacement of many indigenous people. In the late 1600s, hundreds of white settlers, African slaves, and Native Americans perished in a series of deadly fevers that swept through the Charleston area. Meanwhile, most of the inhabitants of Sewee were lost at sea when they tried to paddle a fleet of canoes to England.

Another series of deadly diseases in the summer of 1706 further weakened the local population and induced a squadron of Spanish and French ships to attempt to invade Charleston. Native American allies west of the Ashley and east of the Cooper provided valuable assistance to the English on that occasion, but their numbers continued to decline. An Anglican minister informed London in 1706 that each of the surviving tribes of lowland Indians included no more than fifty people. The name by which the American Indians who lived in the Cape Fear region of North Carolina called themselves was lost to Anglo-American history, but colonial settlers called them Cape Fear Indians.

Cape Fear Indians were considered native to South Carolina due to disputes over Carolina's colonial land, which turned the land south of the Cape Fear River into part of South Carolina. These friendly relations became evident in the early 18th century, when the Cape Fear Indians agreed to fight alongside English colonists under the command of Col. John Barnwell during the first battles of the Tuscarora War (1711-1713). This area was left in the hands of South Carolina Indians, including the Cape Fear Indians, for their personal use. This “later behavior” refers to the Yamassee War (1715-1717), during which several tribes in Carolina, including the Cape Fear Indians, turned against white settlers.

Their motives for doing so concerned the invasion of indigenous lands by whites and unfair trade practices between the two groups. Eleven Indian war groups attacked several towns and plantations in South Carolina, causing so much pain to the colonists that they turned to North Carolina colonists for help. Maurice Moore, who remained in North Carolina after his success in the Tuscarora War, began marching south with some Indian troops and allies to help people in South Carolina. Along the way, Colonel Moore learned that Cape Fear and Waccamaw tribes from Lower Cape Fear region were planning an ambush against colonial group as it headed to South Carolina.

Using this advanced knowledge to his advantage, Moore seized Indians' weapons and ammunition and took several prisoners. The Yamassee War effectively ended when Colonel Moore successfully convinced powerful Cherokee nation to ally with English colonists instead of with equally powerful Creek Nation from Carolinas Piedmontese region. In doing so, Moore secured salvation for colony of South Carolina and, according to Lee, all English America. The Catawba and Siouan tribes, including Cape Miedo Indians, soon followed example set by Cherokees and once again made peace with colonists. For an analysis documentary evidence term “Cusabo” see Gene Waddell, Indians South Carolina Lowcountry 1562—1751 (Southern Studies Program University S.). Eight years later 1751 governor South Carolina named only Etiwans as band local Indian allies. For next twenty-odd years Spanish agents sailing north from new capital continued explore coast present-day South Carolina encountered other groups indigenous peoples.

While Indians helped colonial colonists survive New World helped Americans gain their independence ceded vast amounts land resources pioneers tens thousands indigenous non-indigenous lives were lost war disease hunger indigenous way life was almost completely destroyed. In Second Seminole War (1835-1842) Indians fought keep their land Florida Everglades but were nearly wiped out. (Helena Wimbee) signed agreement cede their land rights provincial government South Carolina. The South Carolina Lowcountry once belonged more than dozen distinct Native American groups whose existence is now scarcely remembered. But between 1622 end 19th century series wars skirmishes known Indian Wars took place between American Indians European colonists mainly over control land. Geographical range conversation encompasses what is commonly called “lowland region” South Carolina; that is coastal plain that stretches approximately eighty miles inland between Savannah River south Santee River north. Their collective willingness tolerate this foreign influx was motivated large extent by their desire protect themselves hostile Indians south west who were aligned Spanish government St.

In early South Carolina white settlers traded traded freely with Indians who lived their settlements law ratified 1707 required them obtain license trade with larger groups Native Americans who resided beyond Lowcountry. Representatives these larger Western groups are certainly part South Carolina's early history but headquarters their respective histories lies beyond Lowcountry beyond scope present conversation. There even Native Americans expelled colonies like South Carolina turned into slaves other...

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